Alternatif pembelajaran di kelas inklusif menggunakan BI-TANDUR-LS.MK Diposkan pada 04 Febuari 2013

Alternatif pembelajaran di kelas inklusif menggunakan BI-TANDUR-LS.MK

FRAMEWORK LEARNING DESIGN BI-TANDUR-LS-MK

AS ALTERNATIVE LEARNING FOR STUDENT IN INCLUSIVE CLASS

 

Created by :

Imam Yuwono, M.Pd

Lecture of FKIP UNLAM Banjarmasin

  1. 1. Abstract

Developing learning framework BI-TANDUR-LS-MK is alternative approach to teaching in inclusive class. First idea of this research is based on findings that social studies teachers in elementary-X (SD organizers piloting inclusive education in South Kalimantan) have difficulty  in developing a learning approach. Students are less active in learning caused by the teacher-centered learning. Students are lack of meaningfulness in learning, tendency to learn they can do only for the purpose of exam questions, not to gain knowledge that can later be used in public life.

Using collaborative action research method, this research resulted in a learning technique that may help teachers in implementing the IPS learning for students in the inclusive class. In practice researchers are collaborating with teachers to find appropriate learning techniques using learning framework BI-TANDUR-LS-MK. In this study found: (1) teacher’s activities in learning have increased with the learning design framework BI-TANDUR-LS-MK, this showed the teacher gives students the chance to put forward ideas and answer questions, focus on issues that were examined so that the conversation focused and provides the opportunity to speak to all children equally. (2) the framework of BI-TANDUR-LS-MK condition students to be active in following lessons. Student activity seen many students who bring ideas, provide feedback, ask questions and answer the teacher's question. With inclusive culture, students accustomed to culture of mutual respect, mutual help and respect among their peers in the classroom, motivate students to gain experience and knowledge using a variety of learning resources. Motivating students are actively participating in the lesson as evidenced by many ask, answer and provide feedback. Train the students dared to appear in public, looking for relationships with others and encourage students to constantly critical of the problems that occur in society.

The research found the right technique to use the framework of BI-TANDUR-LS-MK. Broad implications for the application of this technique to the paradigm of professional teacher as mediator, motivator and facilitator of learning, as an effort to provide students in inclusive classroom supplies regular and who have special needs in living life in the wider community.

Especially for teachers in schools and generally for all parties engaged in the world of children's education in an inclusive classroom, to develop the potential of the child is required creativity of teachers to develop appropriate learning approaches. These results prove that the framework of BI-TANDUR-LS-MK can be used as an alternative to the development of innovative learning approaches.

  1. 2. Background Issues

The diversity of children's needs in inclusive class also have an impact on the adjustment means of learning, instructional media, lingkunngan structuring classes and social interaction between the children in the class. In addition, educational background and understanding of classroom teachers about children with special needs and inclusive education is crucial in managing a class to provide optimal services to children with special needs in the inclusive classroom.

Reading a variety of literature, inclusive education in Indonesia are still many obstacles such as: less readiness of the Government, the community and the education in terms of building a culture of inclusion, developing policies of inclusion and implementing practices inclusion (Inclusion Index issued by the CSIE: 2003). Regular school not yet ready to implement inclusive education, this is due to, among others: infrastructure owned less supportive of teachers in regular schools do not have knowledge about special education, so that the difficulties in carrying out teaching and learning activities (School Management Manual for Life Skills based Special Need Education in : 2003).

 

Through this work the authors manipulate the learning approach that has been tried out in the classroom-tested Inclusion Banua Hanyar 8 Banjarmasin, using the framework of learning " BI-TANDUR-LS-MK”. Using learning framework is intended to respond to the students to respect each other, respect and accept all people learn, so students with special needs inclusive classroom are treated fairly, so that all citizens are motivated to follow lessons learned. The author’s hope of this learning approach can be used as an alternative in delivering classroom inclusion, so it can be used by fellow teachers to deliver learning in the inclusive class.

  1. 3. Formulation of the problem

The problem in this research will be formulated as follows:
1. Is BI-TANDUR-LS-MK framework learning design can improve student learning activities in the inclusive class?
2. Is BI-TANDUR-LS-MK framework learning design can increase the activity of teachers in inclusive class?

 

 

  1. 4. Purpose of the research

 

Purpose of the research is as follows:
1. Knowing whether BI-TANDUR-LS-MK framework learning design can improve student learning activities in the classroom Inclusive
2. Knowing whether BI-TANDUR-LS-MK framework learning design can improve the learning activities of teachers in inclusive classroom
3. Earned points findings can contribute to the planning of teaching and learning in inclusive education settings.

 

  1. 5. Benefits of Research

 

Benefits of action research are as follows:
1. As inputs to educational planners and practitioners in the field on approach to learning in an inclusive educational setting.
2. Inclusive classroom can help teachers in choosing instructional strategies.
3. Can be used by the school inclusive education as an input in order to improve the implementation of inclusive education, particularly in terms of the implementation of learning.

  1. 6. Operational definition

In order to avoid the spread of perceptions / views, the definition presented in this study as follows:
a) Inclusive class is the incorporation of the Inclusive Education and the implementation of the regular school education in an educational system that is unified, in this paper as many as 40 regular students and students with special needs people 5 people.

b) The title of the paper form of the acronym BI-TANDUR-LS-MK are framework learning design has the following meaning: BI means Inclusive Culture means building security, acceptance, cooperation stimulation of community where everyone is rewarded. TANDUR is an acronym: T is the Grow A is Experience N is Named D is Demonstrate U is a repeat R is Celebrate LS are Environment is setting a learning environment that supports student motivation. M is the Music is a tool for managing mood, change the state of the student and support the learning environment. K is deal is a form of agreement lists a simple and concrete to facilitate the learning agreement.

7.  Finding

First, the learning process in the elementary-X prior to this research can be described as follows: Learning is central to the teacher, where the delivery of learning is still dominated by the use of the lecture method. As a result, students lack the ability to ask questions, express ideas and solve problems. Learning more done in the classroom and tend to emphasize the mastery of cognitive knowledge. Students learn more oriented, the interest to be able to answer the exam questions rather than learning to acquire knowledge that can be used in public life later.

Second, the teacher in the learning activities of teachers increased in the presence of IC-GENDRC-E-MD framework learning design, this showed the teacher gives students the chance to put forward ideas and answer questions, focusing issue assessed so that the conversation focused and provides the opportunity to talk to students fairly. How to evaluate student learning outcomes conducted during the learning process takes place. The evaluation process is directed to students to answer questions, ask questions, clarify issues, express opinions and make decisions.

Third, the framework of BI-TANDUR-LS-MK condition students to be active in following lessons. student activity seen many students who bring ideas, provide input, ask questions, and answers. With inclusive culture, students accustomed to culture of mutual respect, mutual help and respect fellow friends in the class, motivate students to gain experience and knowledge using a variety of learning resources. Motivating students are actively participating in the lesson as evidenced by many ask, answer and provide feedback. Train the students dared to appear in public, looking for relationships with others and encourage students to constantly critical of the problems that occur in society.

Fourth, using Scenario Learning of BI-TANDUR-LS-MK in Inclusive classes are:
a. Building Inclusive Culture (BI) to all students in the class inclusion

Inclusive Culture built through understanding and experience of a culture, its execution is done by lecture and discussion and familiarize behavioral attitudes. The tools used to conduct internal dialog always remind execution culture of inclusion is a wall poster.

b. Implementing learning using learning framework TANDUR

The word Grow, Experience, Named, Demonstrate, Repeat, and Celebrate for easy recall shortened to the acronym "TANDUR " TANDUR learning concepts presented to the students first, then engage the student, their allure, satisfy what benefits him, give them a learning experience, grow need to know, provide data on the current peaks, give them the opportunity to associate the experience with the new data, so they live and make it as personal experience, paste the picture as a whole by way of a lot of repeat and then celebrate when feasible studied.

  1. Before starting motivate students by creating a tangle of Participation and ownership or the ability to understand each other, the inclusion of the benefits of their experience.
  2. Experience is: give students the experience and benefits of brain natural desire to explore teachers' experiences make learning easy convey to utilize their knowledge and curiosity.
  3. Named is: naming satisfy a natural desire to give the brain sort and define identity. Naming built on knowledge and curiosity of students at the time, naming is the time to teach the concepts, thinking skills and learning strategies.
  4. Demonstrate is: giving students the opportunity to translate and apply their knowledge into other learning, and into their lives.
  5. Repeat is: repetition strengthens neural connections and foster a sense of "I know that I know"
  6. Celebrate is: give a sense of completion with respect to effort, persistence and success, if it is worth examining the worth also celebrated.


2) Environmental Settings (LS) to support learning. Setting the environment in inclusive class in this paper aims that people are motivated to learn in inclusive class to follow the learning process. To take advantage of the ability of the students are unconsciously absorbing information through partnerships brain - eye used tools using icons posters, setting the bench plays an important role in the orchestrated learning, the bench can be structured to support student learning goals, students with special needs sit mingle with normal students in order to interact naturally. The settings can be shaped like a bench, half-circle model for group discussion, squeeze the bench to the wall if you want to give individual assignments, more flexible use this type of folding chair.
3) Using music to set the hearts of people learning musical rhythm, beats and harmony of music affects human physiology, especially the brain waves and heart rate can evoke feelings and memories. Using music we can set the mood, change the mental state of the student and support the learning environment, the music will stimulate, rejuvenate and reinforce the learning .According to the research music impact on the learning environment, learning will be easier and faster if the student is in a state of relaxed and receptive. Music is used to set the mood, the music used in the second cycle is kind of classical music, using classical music release them to speak, to go on without drawing attention to themselves. After a while the sound of music in their sound will reduce follow the music, when needed attention from them, harden and turn off the sound of music, this action makes the students look and see what's going on with the music. The type of music used is western instrumental slow.

 

8. Conclusions and Recommendations

First, the learning process in the elementary-X prior to this study can be described as follows: Learning is central to the teacher, where the delivery of learning is still dominated by the use of the lecture method. As a result, students lack the ability to ask questions, express ideas and solve problems. Learning more done in the classroom and tend to emphasize the mastery of cognitive knowledge. Students learn more oriented to the interest in order to answer exam questions rather than learning to acquire knowledge that can be used in public life later.

Second, tearher’s activities increased in the presence of BI-TANDUR-LS-MK framework learning design, this showed the teacher gives students the chance to put forward ideas and answer questions, focusing issue assessed so that the conversation focused and provides the opportunity to talk to students fairly. How to evaluate student learning outcomes conducted during the learning process takes place. The evaluation process is directed to students to answer questions, ask questions, clarify issues, express opinions and make decisions.

Third, the framework of BI-TANDUR-LS-MK condition students to be active in following lessons. Student activity seen many students who bring ideas, provide input, ask questions, and answers. With the Inclusive culture,  students accustomed to culture of mutual respect, mutual help and respect fellow friends in the class, motivate students to gain experience and knowledge using a variety of learning resources. Motivating students are actively participating in the lesson as evidenced by many ask, answer and provide feedback.


Suggestion
Based on the above suggested to several parties:

First, teachers are advised to use the approach to BI-TANDUR-LS-MK in learning because this approach can create learning situations that challenge and delight students, training students' skills in problem solving, curiosity and greater student motivation.

Secondly, teachers are advised to master the steps approach BI-TANDUR-LS-MK, so the learning process will be carried out effectively, meaningful to the students and in accordance with specified objectives.

Third, teachers are advised to create an atmosphere of togetherness in order to create conditions conducive and dynamic learning. So with this condition will improve the quality of teaching  become better, teachers are advised to engage with various stakeholders, to support the achievement of the quality of the learning process.

Fourth, teachers are advised to continue to improve their competence in developing learning techniques including social studies, creative and innovative, which will help blind students develop self-potential, be part of a good citizen. Learning techniques using BI-TANDUR-LS-MK approach developed in this study can be used as an alternative approach to innovative learning. Because by using BI-TANDUR-LS-MK can create learning situations that challenge and delight students, training students' skills in problem solving, curiosity and greater student motivation, teachers will feel challenged to help serve students and encourage students to more active role in learning. Teachers need to develop an atmosphere of togetherness communication of the various elements that support student learning atmosphere, in order to create learning conditions kondosif and dynamic that will improve the quality of the process and better learning outcomes.

Fifth, it is recommended that headmaster of Special Need School continues to provide support and facilitate and encourage teachers to undertake various steps in developing innovative learning model, as well as the approach to BI-TANDUR-LS-MK can be used to enhance the intellectual and social skills of students with visual impairments.

Sixth, the findings of this research indicate that the approach of BI-TANDUR-LS-MK effectively used in teaching social studies education and was able to break the paradigm change in the teacher-centered learning to student-centered learning. However, not all teachers are willing and able to apply. Therefore the Ministry of Education advised to facilitate and encourage the teachers to be willing and able to apply in the field.

Seventh, the multiplier effect of the development of Social students are learning in inclusive class with BI-TANDUR-LS-MK approach  untouched optimally, therefore expect other researchers to continue research on the other side of the class action that has not been addressed by this research, such as how to influence use of BI-TANDUR-LS-MK to the value of National Examination.

 

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